Growth Mindset: GoBrain and Making a Splash

Great, resource-rich blog on the growth mindset research and applications for teachers. This blog will be another piece in my study of non-cognitive skills or character strengths such as grit, self-control and curiosity. You can see my notes on Paul Tough’s “How Children Succeed” here:
https://kennygrassroots.wordpress.com/2014/11/18/paul-tough-stuff/

User Generated Education

A recent interest of mine has been the Growth Mindset.  I have blogged and presented on this topic:

Due to my interests, Carol Reiley contacted me about her initiatives about growth mindsets.  First, from her and her team’s website, GoBrain, is the following:

644a24_b860294e2dcb488385908bb95d8f2234.jpg_srz_p_788_575_75_22_0.50_1.20_0.00_jpg_srzhttp://www.gobrain.com/#!the-science/cu1w

Second, she wrote a children’s book, Making a Splash, and decided to crowdfund its publication through Kickstarter – https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/181490972/go-brain-a-childrens-story-to-inspire-life-long-le.

What follows is an interview with Carol about writing and disseminating Making a Splash.

How did you first get interested in the growth mindset?

I’m a PhD student in Computer Science at Johns Hopkins University. My research is studying how medical students learn to become great surgeons. After I read Carol Dweck’s mindset book, a lot…

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What We Know Now (and How It Doesn’t Matter)

Doing some fall cleaning of my Education email archive and came across this blog post link. Happy to repost Dr. Furman’s piece on what we already know about what works in education based on scientific research. This is a good resource of research-based information and the links to scholarly ed articles.

radical eyes for equity

Randy Olson’s Flock of Dodos (2006) explores the evolution and Intelligent Design (ID) debate that represents the newest attack on teaching evolution in U.S. public schools. The documentary is engaging, enlightening, and nearly too fair considering Olson admits upfront that he stands with scientists who support evolution as credible science and reject ID as something outside the realm of science.

Olson’s film, however, offers a powerful message that rises above the evolution debate. Particularly in the scenes depicting scientists discussing (during a poker game) why evolution remains a target of political and public interests, the documentary shows that evidence-based expertise often fails against clear and compelling messages (such as “teach the controversy”)—even when those clear and compelling messages are inaccurate.

In other words, ID advocacy has often won in the courts of political and public opinion despite having no credibility within the discipline it claims to inform—evolutionary biology.

With that…

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Ed Interview: Craig Seasholes

Craig is a teacher-librarian at Sanislo Elementary in Seattle. I had the pleasure of collaborating with Craig on multiple occasions when I was working as a bilingual instructional assistant at a school in the same region of the school district. Craig brings a lot of energy, passion and innovation to his work as a librarian, but his work as an educator definitely extends beyond the classroom, participating on many district committees and involving himself in many education policy discussions. I count myself lucky to have Craig in my Personal Learning Network!

This interview was conducted by email. I want to thank Craig for taking time out of his busy schedule to thoughtfully respond to my questions.

1) Can you briefly describe your background in education and what your current position is?

My teaching started with ten years teaching mountaineering and everything you need to know to enjoy a month in the mountains of Wyoming, Washington or Alaska. From mountaintop to teaching Kindergarten was a short step, as children’s absorption in the adventure of learning is a wonder to behold. After completing a master’s thesis for Pacific Oaks College on “Growing Diversity” in a small independent school in Seattle, I switched my teaching to the library and technology program where I can impact students of all ages, including teachers and parents. Now I happily serve as teacher-librarian in a small, and deliciously diverse public elementary school in southwest Seattle.

 

2) What is one technology integrated lesson that you have done with your students recently?

Gearing up for a 11/17 presentation for the #globaled14 conference on the topic of connected environmental education I recently had 5th graders watch and respond online to a short video a local environmentalist prepared for them. Talking about doggy doo may not be highbrow science, but picking up pet waste before it runs into Puget Sound is a tangible effort. Likewise helping students learning to respond constructively and appropriately to online conversation is an important info-tech skill. The next step, connecting our students with other classes concerned about their local water quality issues. Contact me @craigseasholes on Twitter if you’ve know of some!

 

3) Can you share a story from your first year of teaching that illustrates an important lesson or skill you think all first year teachers should know or have?

I was walking down the sidewalk in Seattle’s Central District with Kindergarteners, happily leading them from tree to tree with “run to the cherry tree” and “stop at the laurels.” “eeeeeewwwww” came the call from kids gathered around something under the laurel, “It’s a dead cat!” Being the “teachable moment” idealistic first year teacher, my intent was clear when I asked, “That is so sad. What do you think happened to the cat?” Expecting a traffic safety lesson to emerge I was instead the one getting the lesson when one boy spoke out, “The police shot it. They shot my cousin.”

Welcome to the real world, Mr Teacher man.

 

4) How do you continue to develop as a professional? Where do you see your professional growth taking you?

The collaborative community of teacher-librarians presents a dizzying array of opportunities to connect and grow as an engaged professional. #tlchat, #globaltl, @WLMALIT @aasl and associates like @JoyceValenza, @ShannonMiller and @readerdavid have opened doors to communities of engaged learners who all call the library “home.”

 

5) What kind of learning culture do you try to establish within your classroom and among your colleagues?

I aim to build and sustain a culture of adventure and possibility to ensure that all students are effective users and producers of ideas and information.

 

6) What are you currently reading for personal enjoyment? And what book would you recommend for a first year teacher?

Later today I’m eagerly finishing Christopher Paul Curtis’ newest book “The Madman of Piney Woods” for school-review, but personal reading stack is topped by U of Syracuse iSchool Dean R.David Lankes’ “The Boring Patient” a brilliant response to undergoing extensive treatment for Hodgkins Lymphoma. Jump online and view his “The Community is the Collection” video address http://quartz.syr.edu/blog/?p=5137 to get a quick sense of how inspiring “The Boring Patient” is.

First year elementary teachers should definitely read Vivian Paley’s “The Kindness of Children”  from Harvard University Press.

Secondary teachers might want to jump ahead and read a current-issue book like Jesse Hagopian’s “More than a Score: The New Uprising Against High-Stakes Testing,” due out next month from Haymarket Books. I blogged it just yesterday and do think new teachers may find strength and inspiration in the test-defying push back against high-stakes, standardized testing. http://bookmansbytes.blogspot.com/2014/11/more-than-score-movement.html

What’s all the fuss about ClassDojo?

Make sure to read the comments section of this post on the pros and cons of ClassDojo. The conversation is a good one!

And here is ClassDojo’s official response to The New York Times article:

https://www.classdojo.com/nyt

Lehrer Werkstatt

Recently the New York Times published an article bashing an app for education called ClassDojo.  I was quite shocked at the negative tone in the article.  Teachers were being accused of releasing harmful data about children into the universe.  The app was being accused of making money on advertising, even though I’ve never seen advertising on their site.  Basically, teachers were being accused of openly shaming students into being good.

Bottom line, a good app does not a good teacher make.  As with any app or with any use of positive feedback, things can go wrong.  Teachers can abuse students using discipline programs that were created to promote a more positive classroom atmosphere.  If you are not good at controlling your students, if you don’t have a positive relationship with your young scholars, a fancy app is not going to help you become a better teacher.

How I used…

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Steve Hargadon’s Interview with Jim Knight

I recently listened to one of Steve Hargadon’s EdTechLive podcasts that featured an interview with Jim Knight, author of High-Impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching and associate research professor at the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. You can find Knight’s website here and you can join his “The Big Four Ning” professional learning network here (my own membership is pending). You can also find Jim Knight on Twitter @jimknight99.

The conversation between Hargadon and Jim Knight centered around instructional coaching, high-impact strategies and teacher professionalization methods. But the conversation did not solely revolve around education jargon and get lost in the weeds. Instead, Knight and Hargadon balanced a worm’s eye view with the bird’s eye view, presenting the big picture and then drilling down to minutia within a given topic. Here is the central theme of the interview and of Knight’s latest book:

One reason why many teachers are not striving to be there best is that poorly designed professional learning can actual inhibit growth by de-professionalizing teachers, treating them like workers on an assembly line rather than professionals doing emotionally complicated knowledge work… If we are to get the schools our children deserve, we need to start by treating teachers as professionals.

Knight starts out by making his big pitch; that there is a fundamental irreconcilability with two underriding assumptions in the teaching profession today. There are some that assume that teachers are intrinsically motivated to improve their practice, and others that assume teachers will not be motivated to improve unless there is a carrot and a stick, for motivation and accountability, i.e. value-added measurements tied to teacher evaluations (the stick) and higher pay for higher impact teachers (the carrot). Knight makes no bones about it, he cites Daniel Pink’s hugely influential book Drive in making the case that teachers are generally intrinsically motivated and that extrinsic motives, coercion and punitive accountability measures are actually detrimental to the development of the profession.  He succinctly stakes out his position when he states, “The distinction between power with and power over is really fundamental to establishing a positive learning community.”

Knight is talking both about the learning environment in the classroom between teachers and students and the learning environment among professional peers striving for improved instructional practice. Knight is an expert on professional learning and Hargadon draws parallels between how Knight talks about positive and productive learning environments for professionals and those for young students, parents and children, institutions and the community. Knight picks this point up and runs with it, surmising that often what happens when schools ‘loose’ parents during the IEP process is when they are not equal partners at the table.

What follows is a discussion on the finer points of the differences between different professional learning strategies from peer learning to positive deviance and appreciative inquiry. I was not at all familiar with these approaches before listening to this podcast and so some of this part of the conversation was lost on me. However, that does not mean I will not encounter these methods in the future and I’m glad to be aware of them. A cursory google search of these strategies immediately got me reflecting on the professional development approaches I have experienced and witnessed here in South Korea. Culturally, I would say the education profession, nor many other professions on the peninsula, have embraced any of these power with instead of power over professional learning methods.  In any case, Knight’s conclusion seems to be that there is no silver bullet in terms of professional learning, the key is “freedom within structure” whatever that structure may be.

Jim Knight’s list of 7 principles that educators should use to guide their actions with colleagues:

  1. Equality
  2. Choice
  3. Voice
  4. Dialogue
  5. Reflection
  6. Practice
  7. Reciprocity

The discussion gets into some deep waters at this point, as Knight cites Bob Sutton’s leadership research (side note: I googled Bob Sutton and found a fascinating interview with the aforementioned Daniel Pink, check it out!) and Paulo Ferreira’s concept of ‘mutually humanizing’ learning and collaboration. Again this sparked an immediate reflection on the work and learning culture here in Korea, which has produced unquestionably miraculous results in the six decades since the Korean War, but is a far cry from what I envision to mean ‘mutually humanizing’. I wonder if other cultures do not need a sense of power with instead of power over in order to be successful in a collective effort. Whether it is Confucian tradition, nationalist pride, or filial piety there is definitely a different intrinsic motivator at work in Eastern cultures. I also wonder if this motivation is limited? Will it evolve to look like something more collaborative with lower power distance between authority and subordinates? Will I appreciate the greater autonomy and more collaborative spirit of teaching in the US after my experienc here in Korea? Or, will I be convinced by colleagues that the Common Core, the district central office or my principal is dictating too much of what I teach and how I grow professionally?

There is great Ted-Ed video that was recently released on understanding power structures among individuals and societies. It’s a video that students 4th grade and up could more than likely understand and engage in a discussion that could help set a classroom culture of power with instead of power over.

They move into a discussion of the use of data of professional learning in education. What is notable from this discussion is their agreement that you need to have a “clear picture of current reality” before you can make a high-impact goal. Knight says that the best use of data in the business world is when it is not used punitively, instead as an improvement tool, one of many.

Next comes content planning, which is probably the most practical portion of the discussion, especially for a new teacher like myself. Knight lays out the two most important components of excellent content planning; first, the knowledge, skills and big ideas that the students need understand and acquire. Second, is content mapping, a visual representation of the path the students will take in their learning. The common theme with both those components is that the research says that students learn best when they understand the big picture and can make connections between the individual steps and tasks of the learning along the way and how they fit into the end goal. During my Teach-Now academic studies we were required to make a variety of graphic organizers such as mind maps and infographics. This is definitely a goal of mine for my first year of teaching. I am a believer in learning maps and graphic organizers.

There is more, much more that Knight and Hargadon touch upon, all of it resonates greatly with me. Knight makes the connection between gamification and flow, the idea that if we gamify learning students could potentially enter a state of optimal experience while personalizing their own learning. The discussion then moves to the importance of storytelling in education, which is a favorite theme of mine. Then on to the moment when a little girl, Natalie Gilbert, faltered in her singing of the national anthem at a Portland Trailblazers game, was first heckled by the crowd and then assisted by Maurice Cheeks, the Blazers head coach. What ensues is heart-warming and as Knight says, literally an inspiration to all educators to be a coach like Cheeks. Open questioning as a high impact strategy to get student “authentically engaged” and how to get teachers to shift their practice to leverage it. Authentic learning as doing science, not learning about science. Knight summarizes that teachers really need “caring and control” in order to be effective, a control that comes out of . He then gives one practical tip for teachers to use to make sure they are systematically attending to all their students’ needs; make a list at the end of every week on students she may have overlooked that week and came at the end of the list, then note the positive strengths of those students at the end of the list, and make sure the following week that they are not at the end of the list (witness to the good), i.e. teach yourself to notice what’s going well.

Key takeaways:

  • Weekly list of students, positves of students at the end of the list
  • Two components of content planning: 1) content definition 2) content visual mapping
  • Seven principles of collegial interaction (see above)
  • Power with instead of power over in all learning environments

Paul Tough Stuff

In 2013 I took part in the Seattle Public Schools Strategic Planning Stakeholder Taskforce, which was tasked with reestablishing the mission, vision and a set of policy priorities for coming the coming five years for the district. On that taskforce, I had the opportunity to discuss many of our districts’ most pressing education policy issues with many of the prominent education leaders and active stakeholders in the community. Invariably, many of the discussions revolved around the so-called Achievement Gap between students of poverty and those of middle-class or higher backgrounds, or certain groups of students of color as against white students.

 

The whole idea of the taskforce was to help the school district identify a few priority metrics by which we could judge student academic progress over the next five years, and thus judge the performance of district officials, school administrators and teachers in their use of time and taxpayer resources. At one point at our table a discussion was sparked about how to measure the intangibles, the social-emotional health and the whole child qualities that may not show up on test scores, but everyone knows is vital to a healthy and productive life. As one of my esteemed table-mates put it, “How do we prioritize the ‘Paul Tough Stuff’?”

 

Paul Tough, of course, is an education journalist, perhaps best known for his first book on education, Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada’s Quest to Change Harlem and America. If you are not familiar, see the controversial documentary Waiting For Superman or google the Harlem Children’s Zone. I read that book in 2010 while teaching English in a community of violently displaced peoples outside of Barranquilla, Colombia. At the time, the book helped to explain some of the struggles I had in the classroom there, although the parallels were few and far between other than blanket poverty.

 

Last week I began reading Tough’s latest book on education, How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character. In this blog post I am going to collect my thoughts about the ‘Paul Tough Stuff’ that I find interesting and noteworthy. Hopefully, I will be able to make some connections to my work as a teacher in Colombia, a bilingual instructional assistant in a Title I school in Seattle and my other encounters with poverty and overcoming it. It just so happens that Coursera, the online MOOC platform, is offering a class on teaching character taught by KIPP Academy co-founder, David Levin. I am planning on auditing this class when it starts in mid-December.

 

Introduction & Chapter I

 

  • Tools of the Mind, is a pre-K teaching method where students are “taught a variety of strategies, tricks, and habits that they can deploy to keep their minds on track.” The three big self-control skills are keeping your focus on the task at hand, managing and regulating emotions and organizing your thoughts. This concept has it roots in the work of the Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky, who believed that childhood play is critical in the development of the mental tools that shape a child’s mind. Students make “play plans”, i.e. goal-setting, they use physical ‘mediator’ tools, i.e. visual cues, and they participate in ‘mature dramatic play’, i.e. complex structured play which teaches children how to ‘follow rules and regulate impulses’.
  • The Cognitive Hypothesis – That success primarily depends on cognitive skills.
  • James Heckman – Nobel Economist at the University of Chicago, GED founding board member and researcher. He found that GED recipients ended up with lives that looked a lot like those of high school drop-outs even though they had the cognitive skills to graduate via a GED program or enroll in a university. Heckman concluded that some psychological traits, non-cognitive skills, significantly helped high school graduates in later life. Traits like persisting through a boring & unrewarding task, delayed gratification, follow through on a plan. GED holders are “‘wise guys’ who lack the ability to think ahead, persist in tasks, or to adapt to their environments” Heckman is quoted.
  • The Perry Preschool Project – Detroit area, War on Poverty study on the affects of early childhood interventions on low-income, low-IQ children. Heckman found that nearly two-thirds of the total benefit that Perry gave to its students was due to non-cognitive factors, “such as curiosity, self-control, and social fluidity.”
  • The book’s premise: “What can any of us do to steer an individual child–or a whole generation of children–away from failure and toward success?”

 

    • Elizabeth Dozier – Fenger High School Principal, Roseland neighborhood, South-Side of Chicago
    • Nadine Burke Harris – Bayview Child Health Center, in Hunters Point, SF.
    • Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) – Physical and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, household dysfunction, divorced or separated parents, family members incarcerated, mentally ill family members, addiction problems within the family. All of which affect the long-term mental and physical health of a child.
    • Vincent Felitti & Robert Anda – Authors of “The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Adult Health: Turning Gold Into Lead.” The first ACE health research done by Kaiser Permanente. “When they looked at patients with a high ACE scores (7 or more) who didn’t smoke, didn’t drink to excess, and weren’t overweight, they found that their risk of ischemic heart disease (the single most common cause of death in the US) was still 360 percent higher than those with an ACE score of 0. The adversity these patients had experienced in childhood was making them sick” despite good habits and behavior as adults.
    • The HPA Axis – Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal” axis, “the way that chemical signals cascade through the brain and body in reaction to intense situations.”
    • The Firehouse Affect – The HPA Axis is good at blanket responses to stress and intense situations, but it is not surgical. In fact, it gives us stress responses that are not at all helpful in many or most intense situations.
    • Executive Functions – Among Burke Harris’ patients with an ACE score of 0, only 3 percent had behavioral problems at school. Those patients with an ACE score of 4 or more, 51 percent of them had behavioral issues.
  • The prefrontal cortex is adversely affected by stress. The prefrontal cortex is “critical in self-regulatory activities of all kinds, both emotional and cognitive.” Stress and ACE’s make it harder for children to sit still, concentrate, rebound from disappointments, and to follow directions.
  • Executive Function – The ability to deal with confusing and unpredictable situations and information.
  • Stroop Exec Function Test – The word red is written in green letters. What color is the word?
  • Working Memory – The ability to keep a bunch of facts in your head at the same time.

 

Chapter 2

  • David Levin, co-founder of KIPP Academy. Yale grad, TFA grad. Houston area was where the first KIPP school was started, but the South Bronx middle school was their big moment (Michael Feinberg, other co-founder).
  • http://www.kipp.org/mobile/video-60-Minutes.cfm (60 Minutes feature, 2000)
  • 8 of 38 of the first cohort of South Bronx middle school graduates of KIPP went on to complete a four-year college degree. Nearly all of that cohort enrolled in university, but most did not finish.
  • Learned Optimism by Martin Seligman – University of Pennsylvania professor of psychology, argues that optimism is a learnable skill, not an inborn trait.
  1. 3 P’s of negativity explanations: Permanent, Personal and Pervasive
  2. 3 explanations of positivity: Specific, Limited and Short-term
  3. Character Strengths and Virtues: Handbook & Classification, the “mirror image” of the DSM Manual of Mental Disorders (Noble: bravery, citizenship, fairness, wisdom, integrity, Emotional: love, humor, zest, appreciation of beauty, Human Interactions: social intelligence, kindness, gratitude)
  4. What “I think is great about the character-strength approach is that it is fundamentally devoid of value judgement” – David Levin
  • KIPP slogans: Work Hard, Be Nice, There are no shortcuts, One School. One Mission. Two Skills. Academics and Character.,
  • Riverdale Country School, elite prep school in the Bronx, headmaster is Dominic Randolph,

 

  • Angela Duckworth – Penn Pyschology professor, “To help chronically low-performing but intelligent students, educators and parents must first recognize that character is at least as important as intellect.”
  • Walter Mischel, Columbia psychology professor, famous for the 1960’s experiment of the “Marshmallow Test”. Children are posed with a choice, eat the marshmallow immediately and they can only have one. Wait until the test proctor returns in 20 minutes and they can have two marshmallows. Seminal in both its assessment of techniques of will-power by children and the long-term effects of the children’s ability to delay gratification.
  1. The more children were able to distract themselves from the marshmallow at hand or think differently or abstractly about the marshmallow, the longer the children were able to delay eating the marshmallow.
  2. Self-control techniques are most effective when the student or child know what he or she wants, making less immediate, more intangible long-term goals harder in terms of self-discipline, delayed gratification (motivation).
  3. Duckworth divides motivation into two achievement dimensions, both are necessary to achieve long-term goals, neither is sufficient by itself:

1) Motivation – Drive, vision, goal-setting, intrinsic or extrinsic reward

2) Volition – willpower, self-control, grit, determination, persistence

  • The Big Five human personality dimensions:
    1. Agreeableness
    2. Extraversion
    3. Neuroticism
    4. Openness – Creativity, flexibility, linked with a liberal ideology
  • Conscientiousness – Doing your best in all situations without a promise of material reward because of an internal motivation to always do your best.
  1. a) Orderly
  2. b) Hardworking
  3. c) Reliable
  4. d) Respectful of Social Norms
  5. e) High level of Self-Control is the most important ingredient to   

               conscientiousness

  • “People high in conscientiousness get better grades in high school and college; they commit fewer crimes; and they stay married longer. They live longer…and a lower incidence of Alzheimer’s disease.” Along with improved workplace and material outcomes.
  • Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, two Marxist economists, found in their 1976 study of character and schools that students with the highest GPA’s were the ones who scored the lowest on measures of creativity and independence, and highest on the measures of punctuality, delay of gratification, predictability, and dependability. For Bowles and Gintis this indicated corporate America’s desire to create and maintain a docile and dependable workforce, “bland and reliable sheep”, so they created a school system which rewarded conscientiousness.
  • Other personality pyschologists also consider too much conscientiousness to be a negative, an indicator of excessive restraint, difficulty making decisions, unnecessarily delay gratification or deny themselves pleasure, “classic squares: they’re compulsive, anxious and repressed.”
  • Grit: “a passionate commitment to a single mission and an unswerving dedication to achieve that mission.”
  • The KIPP and Riverdale 7 Important Character Strengths:
  1. Grit
  2. Self-control
  3. Zest – Indicator: a student raises her hand to answer every question.
  4. Social Intelligence
  5. Gratitude
  6. Optimism – Indicator: a student believes that effort will improve their future.
  7. Curiosity – Indicator: a student is eager to explore new things.
  • CPA – Character Point Average, grades based on an assessment of student character strengths
  • Moral Character – Ethical values such as fairness, generosity, integrity
  • Performance Character – Effort, diligence and perseverance
  • Madeline Levine, Marin County pyschologist, who says that children of affluent parents now exhibit “unexpectedly high rates of emotional problems beginning in junior high school” because affluent parents are more likely to be “emotionally distant from their children while at the same time insisting on high levels of achievement.” Levine is featured in the Race To Nowhere documentary.
  • For Riverdale students, character and the necessity of character building takes on a different meaning. As the Riverdale counselor, Fierst, puts it, “We are letting you in on the secret of what successful people are like” at KIPP, with impoverished students. While Riverdale’s students are not dependent on their teachers for such information and examples. And yet, Fierst also says, “Our kids (at Riverdale) don’t put up with a lot of suffering. They don’t have a threshold for it. They’re protected against it quite a bit. And when they do get uncomfortable, we hear from their parents.”

→ On both ends of the socioeconomic spectrum, “If your premise is that your students are lacking in deep traits like grit and gratitude and self-control, you’re implicitly criticizing the parenting they’ve received.

→ Riverdale creates a high floor, not a high ceiling for its students. It a risk-management strategy for the parents so as to make it very hard for their children to “fall out of the upper class”. See this Vox.com interview with Peter Thiel for more on this issue.

  • Randolph says, “The idea of building grit and building self-control is that you get that through failure…And in most highly academic environments in the United States, no one fails anything”…because there is a high floor, so not a large chance of ‘original success’ or failure, i.e. no real stakes at play. See the Peter Thiel interview for more on this also, he says he is not a believer in failure, but instead of building successes.
  1. Is it possible that children of different socioeconomic groups need different character building challenges, maybe affluent students need real stakes and a risk of failure in an endeavor in order to build grit, while students of poverty already have grit, but instead need to build conscientiousness and self-control?

 

  • SLANT – Sit up, Listen, Ask questions, Nod, and Track the speaker
  • Code-switching – The ability to recognize and accurately perform the behaviors appropriate to each different cultural setting. The problem with code-switching is that “the kids who are actually part of the dominant culture don’t necessarily act like it at school.” Anti-conformist behavior at Riverdale is the dominant culture’s behavior, while at KIPP everyone has to conform in order to succeed.

Note: This is controversial ground, where race, culture and socioeconomic power come into full focus in the book, yet Tough seems to avoid the deeper implications of this code-switching issue. Are there problems with a school serving low-income students of color and enforcing the expectations of a dominant white culture of affluence which does not even need to follow its own social norms? Why do these students of color need to adhere to these proscribed cultural expectations in that case? Why do they have to diligently code-switch if society has been set up to see their social norms as less desirable, and thus set-up to make success harder for these students of color? Why do they have to worker harder at this, or at all, if they can compete with the Riverdale students on the same level academically? Or, is there just something fundamental about grit and self-control which make them keys to success across cultures, and so we’ve got to teach them in appropriate ways differentiated for each classroom culture?

 

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) – “Using the conscious mind to recognize negative or self-destructive thoughts or interpretations and to talk yourself into a better perspective.”
  1. Metacognition – Thinking about thinking
  2. Thinking about character and about evaluating character are both metacognitive processes
  3. Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) 2-step process –
  1. Mental Contrasting is “Concentrating on a positive outcome and simultaneously concentrating on the obstacles in the way.” This creates “a strong association between future and reality that signals the need to overcome the obstacles in order to attain the desired future” say Gabrielle Oettingen and Duckworth.
  2. Implementation Intentions are “specific plans in the form of if/then statements that link the obstacles with ways to overcome them, such as ‘If I get distracted by TV after school, then I will wait to watch TV until after I finish my homework.’”
    • MCII is engaging the prefrontal cortex, which again is instrumental in self-regulatory processes, because we are making structured rules for ourselves that can create a willful determination that turns into an automatic response, or habit.
  • William James, American philosopher, “Habit and character are essentially the same thing.”
    • It is a powerful and easily understood thing to tell a child that some people have good habits and others have bad habits. Habits can be hard to change, but certainly not impossible, while character sounds a bit more daunting. Again, see the definition of conscientiousness, it is when people are in the habit of doing the ‘right’ or ‘good’ thing, “meaning the more socially acceptable or long-term-benefit-enhancing option.”
    • KIPP has a strong group identity. See South Korea as a national example of strong group identity with a mostly positive result as well. This group identity can have a strong impact on achievement.
    • Stereotype Threat – The theory that when a group of people are worried about confirming a stereotype about your group, you get anxious, and as a result you create a worse outcome.
  • Carol Dweck – Growth Mindset, “Regardless of the facts on malleability of intelligence, students do much better academically if they believe intelligence is malleable.”
  • Tell students, “Intelligence is not a finite endowment, but rather an expandable capacity that increases with mental work” and the growth-mindset message may improve academic outcomes for your students.
  • So at KIPP, “Levin wanted math teachers to use the character strengths in word problems, he explained that history teachers could use them in classes about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.” And discussions about literary characters and their personality traits in light of growth-mindset, the 7 character strengths, and MCII.
  • “If you don’t have that kind of social safety net (that Riverdale students enjoy) – and children in low-income families almost by definition do not – you need to compensate in another way. To succeed, you need more grit, more social intelligence, more self-control than wealthier kids.”
    • And here Tough gets back to the code-switching reality. I think his above statement is undoubtedly true and undoubtedly unfair to children of poverty and especially children of color. As teachers, we need to recognize this, and work with parents to assess the character strengths and areas of growth in our students no matter their background, but especially in the students Tough is talking about.

 

Chapter 3 –

  • Elizabeth Spiegel, Chess Teacher at IS 318 in Brooklyn, a Title I school and the best Chess public middle school in the country, or just the best.
  • Elo ~ (10 x IQ) + 1000, meaning a chess player’s tournament rating, your IQ score multiplied by ten and add 1000 and you get what your maximum chess player rating could approximately be (~). This proposes that there is an IQ dependent cap on a person’s chess ability.
  • Executive functions of chess at IS 318:
  1. Cognitive flexibility – The ability to see alternative solutions to problems, to think outside the box, to negotiate unfamiliar situations.
  2. Cognitive self-control – The ability to inhibit an instinctive or habitual response and  substitute a more effective, less obvious one.
  • Spiegel says that, “Teaching chess is really about teaching the habits that go along with thinking.” This should sound familiar, it rhymes with the notion that character and habits are really the same thing. “Like how to understand your mistakes and how to be more aware of your thought processes.” Teaching chess for Spiegel is like ‘psychotherapy’ for most people, you go over habitual mistakes and try to understand why you make them.
  • Spiegel, “I try to teach my students that losing (or failing) is something you do, not something you are.”
  • Chess-in-the-schools, NYC – http://www.chessintheschools.org/
  • Spiegel, “I definitely have a warm relationship with a lot of the kids. But I think my job as a teacher is to be more like a mirror, to talk about what they did on the chessboard and help them think about it.” No condescension! Take the students seriously, believe in their abilities and challenge them to improve themselves.
  • The Marshall Chess Club, Greenwich Village, NYC
  • Laszlo (psychologist) and Klara Polgar, raised three genius daughters, Judit Polgar is considered the best chess player of all time.
  • Grit and Flow reinforce each other, they are both represent a “dedicated pursuit of a goal” and require strong self-discipline.
  • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, a psychologist collaborator with Martin Seligman, created the idea of optimal experiences or FLOW, when a person is totally engaged by a pursuit, in the moment, free of distractions. “Intense concentration”
  • Falsification: the only way to test the validity of a theory is to prove it wrong. This was coined by the Austrian philosopher Sir Karl Popper. People do not look for contradictory evidence, instead they automatically look for data that proves them right, “confirmation bias”. If a chess player becomes adept at being more pessimistic about a certain move or series of moves, they can more easily falsify their move theory and discover the optimal choice for their next move. You still need optimism in order to be confident and decisive and relentless in your pursuit of success on the chessboard.

 

Chapter 4 – College Success

  • The US is 8 out of 34 OECD countries in terms of college enrollment, but ranks second to last in terms of the percentage of college freshmen who go on to graduate.
  • “An American with a BA can now expect to earn 83 percent more than an American with only a high school diploma.”
  • William G Bowen, former president of Princeton University, Michael S McPherson, former president of Macalester College in Minnesota, and their 2009 book, Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities.

Findings:

  1. a) Undermatching was a big problem among teenagers of poverty, meaning they

were disproportionately attending schools below their academic achievement

level. Undermatching did not mean students more easily graduated from college,

quite the opposite effect, actually.

  1. b) The best predictor of college completion was a student’s high school GPA, no matter where the students attended high school, nor the caliber of the university they entered
  2. c) Angela Duckworth used the same data and found that standardized test scores were correlated to pure IQ test scores, while GPA was best predicted by test scores of self-control, ie non-cognitive, pre-frontal, executive function, character stuff!!!!
  • Jeff Nelson, former TFA teacher, CEO of OneGoal
  • Asking students from poverty to spend 16 years delaying gratification for a chance at ‘success’ and stability is like a grand, real-life marshmallow test, except instead of a known reward, it is an unknown and exotic reward that anyone would be hard-pressed to imagine.

Chapter 5 – A Better Path

“The idea of building grit and building self-control is that you get that through failure. And in most highly academic environments in the United States, no one fails anything.” – Dominic Randolph

  1. “First, as much as possible, you protect him from serious trauma and chronic stress;
  2. then, even more important, you provide him with a secure, nurturing relationship with at least one parent and ideally two.”
  3. Then, you teach your child how to manage stress by repeatedly providing LG “when their pups were stressed out.”
  4. Last, “some child-size adversity, a chance to fall down and get back up on his own, without help.” How to manage failure.
    • Ivy League Insurance Policies, see Peter Thiel Vox interview also, before the Great Recession of 2008, three-quarters of all Princeton grads went into one of two finance careers. Ivy League students, according to James Kwak, are motivated by two main decision rules, “close down as few options as possible; and only do things that increase the possibility of future overachievement.”
  • Tough’s education reform and poverty syllogism:
  1. Scores on achievement tests in school correlate strongly with life outcomes, no matter a student’s racial or socioeconomic background
  2. Children in low-income homes did much worse on achievement tests than children in middle-income and high-income homes.
  3. Certain schools, using a very different model than traditional public schools, were able to substantially raise the achievement-test scores of low-income children.
  4. Conclusion: if we replicate and scale to a national level the accomplishments of those schools (KIPP academy, etc.) we could make a huge dent in poverty’s impact on children’s success.

→ Eric Hanushek, Thomas Kane, William Sanders, the economists and statisticians that first made the claim that through ‘value-added models’ we could identify effective teachers and ineffective teachers.

The “original papers, the ones by Hanushek and others that are now cited by reform advocates, concluded that variations in teacher quality probably accounted for less than 10 percent of the gap between high- and low-performing students.

 

  • Gates Foundation Measures of Effective Teaching (MET Project)
  • 7 million American children are growing up in a family earning less than $11,000 a year, making more likely the effects of ACE on long-term health, among many other disadvantages
  • While some charters and public schools have found a way to intervene successfully in the lives of “better-off” low-income children, those making $41,000 a year in their family of four, NO ONE HAS FOUND A SUCCESSFUL INTERVENTION METHOD FOR THE “DEEPLY DISADVANTAGE CHILDREN”.
  • Orgs that are trying to find systems of support and intervention for the poorest of the poor in America:
  1. Center for Youth Wellness – Bayview Hunters Point, Nadine Burke Harris
  2. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC Program)
  3. Tools of the Mind
  4. Turnaround for Children – Character-building and Cognitive behavioral therapy
  5. KIPP Through College

 

The crux of the problem of poverty and education achievement gaps according to Paul Tough:

  • The root causes are:
  1. A home and community that create high levels of stress
  2. The absence of a secure relationship with a caregiver
  3. The learned behavior of managing stress appropriately
  • The barriers to conversation and intervention of poverty:
  1. The science of ACE’s is not well known and is dense
  2. If you are not low-income and not a person of color, it feels very ‘uneasy’ talking about the dysfunction in a certain community’s homes.
  3. It challenges political truths on the left and right. That character matters and it can be cultivated by environment of a child, challenge long held notions in red and blue states.

Global Education Conference ’14 Sessions Archive

Session 1 – The Quiet Leader: leadership attributes of elementary social studies teachers in an era of deep change.

I have created a Storify archive of my tweet notes during the session. It was an interesting conversation among eight to ten education professionals from around the world. Katherine Ireland, the session presenter, is a PhD student in New Brunswick, Canada, studying teacher leadership in social studies education on the elementary level.

Session 2 – Going Global: A Literacy, A process, A Library Call to Action

Convergence – Librarians can be the catalyst to take advantage of the convergence of technology and global changes. There is no reason to be alone as a professional anymore. If a principal asks you “Why should I hire you?”, your answer should refer to your Personal Learning Network (PLN), “You are not just hiring me, you are hiring all the smart people I know.” The workplace of the 21st Century demands that we are able to connect and collaborate across borders and time zones.

All school subjects with the prefix of ‘geo’ would be more true to the issues of study. For example, biology or medicine as geo-medicine, would reflect current phenomena in global health like the outbreak of ebola.

Skype introduced a new feature this year called Skype Translator, a service that can translate communication between two languages, in real-time, both written and verbal translations. This service could be used in a Mystery Skype event to connect classrooms across the globe. Check out Skype in the Classroom to read more about all of these global education resources.  You can also participate in the Teacher Librarian weekly chats on Twitter which can be found using the hashtag ‘tlchat’.

GlobalTL – Librarians without Borders is the Google+ community for Teachers and Teacher Librarians to collaborate on inquiry projects across the country and world.

Paul Fleischman – Eyes Wide Open: Going Behind the Environmental Headlines

The environment seems to be vastly under-reported even though it will effect today’s teenagers and elementary students vastly more than any other generation. This is a book for students age 14 and up who want to understand their place in environmental history. Paul reported on one field report based on the reading of the book by a class in Minnesota that investigated Colony Collapse Disorder and why beekeeping and apiaries were banned in their town. They ended up getting laws changed in their town. He reported on the Munich School System which connects every urban school with a cabin in the Alps so that students can spend time and learn in the natural world. Citizen science is taking off, for example, the U.S. coastlines have a citizen monitoring system which identifies, logs and tries to understand the cause of death of every animal which washes up on the shores.

Virtual Book Clubs can be really powerful for a small group of students. Being able to communicate with people and students beyond their own community can really enrich the learning experience for many students. The special hashtag days on twitter, online summits, and global awareness days are really powerful catalysts for connection for both teachers and students.  Figure out ways for let students lead the way in the creation, research and impact of global collaboration.

Shared Presentation Resources and Links:

http://www.litworld.org/wrad/

http://flipgrid.com/info/

http://save20gallons.org/

http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/92229.html

http://www.eyeswideopenupdates.com/

http://www.projectnoah.org/mobile

http://honeybeesforedina.weebly.com/

http://scooppoop.org/

http://poetrysummit.weebly.com/\

Session 2 – Using Facebook and Twitter as online classrooms: Connecting students and educators around the globe.

– Katrina Ingco and King Pierre Moncal, The Philippines

Facebook

A Babson Survey found that 61% of teacher have Facebook accounts, 18% use it to communicate with other educators, and 12% use it to communicate with their students.

The positives of Facebook is that students are already on Facebook, privacy setting options are available and you can create closed or secret groups for your class.

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To safely ‘friend’ your students, you can create customized lists to keep things private from your students, or set-up a second professional account that you use just to connect with students.  You can also create a Facebook ‘Fan Page’ to organize your student ‘friends’ or a private group. Groups can be thought of as a place of creation for students and the teacher, where as a Fan page is a place where the teacher is still the ultimate mediator of the conversation and sharing.

The potential learning opportunities on Facebook mimic many of those that are advertised by traditional edtech dedicated social networks, mobile and web apps. Sharing documents and content, brainstorming, educational math and reading games, peer review of journal entries using the FB Notes feature, extra credit ‘flash’ assignments for students to take advantage of in a timely manner, class polls, school news, parent communication and involvement in the group or fan page (this can also act as a regulator of the students’ social media footprint). In fact, you can save paper and streamline the permission slip and newsletter distribution by posting them to a class FB page or group. Last, you can invite guest professionals, content contributors and mentors to add to the conversation and information sharing on the FB group. For example, after a guest lecture by a guest expert, they can continue the conversation with the class online.

FB ed apps

Twitter

There are 1 billion users of Twitter. 5,700 tweets per second and 100 million Tweets per day. There are about 50/50 male and female Twitter users.

It is recommended that you create a special Twitter class account that students are to follow. You simply ask student to tweet @yourclassaccount every time they are interacting or responding to an assignment or conversation on Twitter. In addition, you can in turn follow your students Twitter account and learn about their interests via their feed.

Students can connect with the world, sharing their content, understanding the specific Twitter grammar and comparing it with traditional forms of grammar. Besides sharing, of course, they can follow the incredible feeds like NatGeo, NASA, and other inspiring and informative Twitter handles in a variety of fields.  The Direct Messaging feature allows you to have private communications with parents and students via Twitter. Parents are eager to monitor their children’s social media footprint, this is a great way to leverage parent support as a regulator of interaction on the social media platform and provide transparency about the content of the class.

Below are some Twitter apps which enhance the educational value of Twitter for teachers and students:

http://twtpoll.com/ – Twitter polls

http://www.twitterfall.com/ – Research and collect specific hashtag information

http://historicaltweets.com/ – You can follow the Twitter feeds of historical figures and those who Tweet histories of places and events

http://www.twtbase.com/twiddeo/ – Sharing video via Twitter